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沼气成分对沼气发电机组的影响以及解决方案

来源:http://www.huannengpower.com   发布于:2018-12-12

1.硫化氢对发电机组的影响

1. The influence of hydrogen sulfide on generating units

硫化氢(H2S)是一种无色有毒的可燃性气体,具有激烈的臭鸡蛋气味,当空气中硫化氢的体积含量超越0.1%时,就能引起头疼晕眩等中毒症状。硫化氢(H2S)对铁等金属有强腐蚀性,也易吸附金属表面与多种金属离子效果,生成不溶于水的硫化物沉积。沼气在焚烧时,其间的H2S还能转化为腐蚀性很强的亚硫酸气雾会污染环境和腐蚀机器设备,同时H2S在湿润的环境下对金属管道、焚烧设备、检测设备和仪表等都具有激烈的腐蚀性,所以沼气在使用前有必要脱出其间所含的H2S。

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. When the volume of hydrogen sulfide in the air exceeds 0.1%, it can cause headache, dizziness and other poisoning symptoms. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is highly corrosive to iron and other metals. It is also easy to absorb metal surface and various metal ions, resulting in water-insoluble sulfide deposition. In the process of biogas incineration, H2S can also be converted into highly corrosive sulfite mist, which will pollute the environment and corrode machinery and equipment. At the same time, H2S has intense corrosiveness to metal pipelines, incineration equipment, detection equipment and instrumentation in wet environment. Therefore, it is necessary for biogas to remove the H2S contained in it before use.

使用沼气发电时沼气中的硫化氢会对沼气发电机组的进气管道、增压器、中冷器、火花塞、气缸套、排气管和消音器等形成严峻腐蚀影响机组寿数。所以沼气在进入发电机组之前有必要进行沼气预处理,将H2S降到机组允许的范围内才干确保机组的可靠运转。

Hydrogen sulfide in biogas will cause severe corrosion to intake pipes, superchargers, intercoolers, spark plugs, cylinder liners, exhaust pipes and mufflers of biogas generating units. So it is necessary to pretreat the biogas before the biogas enters the generating unit and reduce the H2S to the allowable range of the generating unit in order to ensure the reliable operation of the generating unit.

2.水分对发电机组的影响

2. The influence of moisture on generating units

在使用沼气发电过程中,沼气水分含量过大的话,会导致发电机组的进气压力损耗过大,严峻的情况下,会引起发动机功率动摇、敲缸、停机等严峻地影响其使用寿数。其详细表现为:

In the process of using biogas to generate electricity, if the moisture content of biogas is too high, it will lead to excessive loss of intake pressure of generating units. In severe cases, it will cause engine power shaking, cylinder knocking, shutdown and other severe impact on its service life. Its detailed manifestations are as follows:

(a)发动机焚烧困难;

(a) Engine burning is difficult;

(b)下降焚烧室温度,下降内燃机的功率;

(b) Reducing the temperature of the incinerator and the power of the internal combustion engine;

(c)因为水蒸气等无功气体的存在,增压耗功增大;

(c) Because of the presence of reactive gases such as water vapor, the power consumption of turbocharging increases.

(d)水蒸气与其他酸性物质的化合发生中心产品,对机器自身发生腐蚀,缩短机器的使用寿数,下降机器的可靠性。

(d) The combination of water vapor and other acidic substances produces a central product, which corrodes the machine itself, shortens the service life of the machine and reduces the reliability of the machine.

3.固体杂质对发电机组的影响

3. Effect of Solid Impurities on Generator Units

粉尘是大气环境中涉及面广、损害严峻的一种污染物。粉尘是发动机明确限制的杂质,它首要影响在于:

Dust is one of the most widely involved and severely damaged pollutants in the atmospheric environment. Dust is an impurity that is clearly limited by the engine. Its primary influence lies in:

(a)堵塞管路,流通不畅,加大压损,增加运转费用;

(a) Blocking pipelines, poor circulation, increasing pressure loss and operating costs;

(b)增大机械磨损,下降设备使用寿数。

(b) Increase the mechanical wear and tear, and decrease the service life of the equipment.

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处理方案

Treatment plan

针对发动机对沼气的要求,在沼气发动机前安装处理体系以处理了气源侧与用气侧的对立是现在处理沼气发电机组使用问题的有效办法,首要表现在以下两个方面:

According to the requirement of biogas engine, installing treatment system before biogas engine to deal with the opposition between the gas source side and the gas side is an effective way to deal with the use of biogas generating units. The main manifestations are as follows:

1.下降气体的相对湿度

1. Relative humidity of falling gas

水分的脱除,考虑到详细的情况,简单分为凝聚水的脱除以及未凝聚水脱除两大部分,前者可以选用汽水分离器来完成,后者的完成较为复杂,现在首要有下面几种方法:

The removal of water can be divided into two parts: the removal of condensed water and the removal of non-condensed water. The former can be accomplished by steam-water separator, while the latter is more complex. Now the following methods are the first to be used:

(a)低温除湿:经过制冷设备下降气体的温度,使得其间的水蒸气凝聚,然后排除体系;

(a) Low temperature dehumidification: the temperature of the gas is lowered by the refrigeration equipment, so that the water vapor condenses between them, and then the system is eliminated;

(b)吸附:选用对水有较强吸附效果的吸附剂,将气体中的水分分出;

(b) Adsorption: Select adsorbents with strong adsorptive effect to separate water from gas;

(c)膜过滤:选用特别结构的膜材料,在特定的条件下将水从气体中分出。

(c) Membrane filtration: Water is separated from gases under specific conditions by using membrane materials with special structures.

2.下降气体杂质成分含量

2. Decrease the content of impurities in gases

气体中的杂质是比较复杂的成分,因为是针对发动机的使用,所以对杂质的判断首要以发动机的要求为准,首要有下面几种:

Impurities in gases are more complex components, because they are for the use of engines, so the determination of impurities should first be based on the requirements of the engine, and the following are the main ones:

(a)硫的去除:

(a) Removal of sulphur:

以硫化氢为主的硫化物的去除首要有物理、化学以及生物三种方法。其间物理办法首要指物理吸附方法脱硫,这种方法操作简洁,但往往需求占地较大的设备,并且吸附剂需求再生。化学方法指以化学反响的方法将硫固化下来,现在有干法及湿法,其差别首要是反响物的物理形状是固体仍是液体的差别。生物法脱硫是现在比较新兴的一种方法,其首要原理是在反响罐中培养出合适的菌种,这些菌种以硫化物为养料,将其间的硫固定下来。 关于硫含量不高的气体,选用物理吸附或者干法脱硫一般比较经济实用,并且操作简洁。

Physical, chemical and biological methods are the main methods for the removal of hydrogen sulfide-based sulfides. Physical method mainly refers to physical adsorption desulfurization. This method is simple to operate, but often requires large equipment, and adsorbent needs regeneration. Chemical method means that sulfur is solidified by chemical reaction. Now there are dry and wet methods. The main difference is that the physical shape of the reactant is the difference between solid and liquid. Biological desulfurization is a relatively new method nowadays. Its primary principle is to cultivate suitable bacteria in the reaction tank. These bacteria are fed with sulfide and fix the sulfur between them. For gases with low sulfur content, physical adsorption or dry desulfurization is generally economical and practical, and the operation is simple.

此外,根据我国的环保规范规定:沼气作为动力使用时,沼气中的H2S含量不得超越200mg/Nm3。因此沼气经过脱硫处理后需求选用沼气分析仪对沼气中H2S含量进行实时在线监测,为业主供给实时精确的数据参阅,帮助其对沼气预处理工艺进行优化调整,进步沼气发电机组进气品质,以确保H2S含量到达沼气发电的要求。

In addition, according to the environmental protection regulations of our country, when biogas is used as power, the content of H2S in biogas should not exceed 200 mg/Nm3. Therefore, after desulfurization treatment of biogas, it is necessary to use biogas analyzer to monitor the H2S content in biogas on-line in real time, to provide real-time and accurate data reference for owners, to help them optimize and adjust the pretreatment process of biogas, to improve the intake quality of biogas generating units, so as to ensure that the H2S content meets the requirements of biogas power generation.

因为沼气成分复杂,除H2S外还含有CH4、CO2、O2等气体成分,假如要确保沼气发电机组的沼气品质,进步沼气热值,确保沼气焚烧发电功率,除了要下降H2S含量,经过监测沼气中CH4、CO2的浓度,为优化厌氧发酵工艺,进步CH4含量,下降CO2含量供给参阅根据,也是十分必要的。

Because the composition of biogas is complex, besides H2S, it also contains CH4, CO2, O2 and other gas components. If we want to ensure the biogas quality of biogas generating units, improve the calorific value of biogas, and ensure the power generation of biogas incineration, besides reducing the content of H2S, monitoring the concentration of CH4 and CO2 in biogas, in order to optimize the anaerobic fermentation process, improve the content of CH4 and reduce the content of CO2, it is also very important. Necessary.

(b)粉尘(颗粒物)的去除:

(b) Removal of dust (particulate matter):

一般选用过滤的方法将颗粒物限制在一定的范围内。另外,某些颗粒可以在吸附的环节去除去,为到达较好的去除效果,一般对气体中的颗粒物分级处理,设置不同精度的过滤器,逐级将颗粒物处理到体系终究的要求,这样不只可以下降精密过滤的本钱,也可以增加体系运转的可靠性。

Generally, the method of filtration is used to limit the particulate matter to a certain range. In addition, some particles can be removed in the process of adsorption. In order to achieve a better removal effect, particulate matter in the gas is generally classified, filters with different precision are set up, and particulate matter is processed to the final requirements of the system step by step. This can not only reduce the cost of precision filtration, but also increase the reliability of the system operation.


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