1、 曲柄连杆机构 曲柄连杆机构是发起机实践工作循环，完成能量转换的主要运动部件。它由机体组、活塞连杆组和曲轴飞轮组等组成。在做功过程中，活塞接受燃气压力在气缸内做直线运动，经过连杆转换成曲轴的旋转运动，并从曲轴对外输出动力，而在进气、紧缩和排气过程中，飞轮释放能量把曲轴的旋转运动转化成活塞的直线运动。
1. The crank-connecting rod mechanism is the main moving part of the engine's practical work cycle to complete the energy conversion. It is composed of body group, piston connecting rod group and crankshaft flywheel group. In the process of work, the piston receives the gas pressure to move in a straight line in the cylinder, converts the connecting rod into the rotary motion of the crankshaft, and outputs power from the crankshaft to the outside. In the process of intake, contraction and exhaust, the flywheel releases energy to convert the rotary motion of the crankshaft into the linear motion of the piston.
2、 配气机构 配气机构的功用是依据发起机的工作次第和工作过程，定时开启、关闭进气门和排气门，使可燃混合气或空气进入气缸，并使废气从气缸内排出，完成换气过程。配气机构大多数采用顶置气门式配气机构，普通由气门组、气门传动组和气门驱动组组成。
2. The function of valve train of valve train is to open and close the intake valve and exhaust valve regularly according to the working order and process of the engine, so that combustible mixture or air can enter the cylinder, and exhaust gas can be discharged from the cylinder to complete the ventilation process. The valve train mostly adopts the top valve train, which is generally composed of valve train, valve drive train and valve drive train.
3、 燃料供应系 汽油机燃料供应系的功用是依据发起机的请求，配制出一定数量和浓度的混合气，供入 气缸，并将熄灭后的废气从气缸内排出到大气中，柴油机燃料供应系的功用是把柴油和空气分别供入气缸，在熄灭室内构成混合气并熄灭，后将熄灭后的废气排出。 沼气发电机机
3. The function of the fuel supply system of gasoline engine is to prepare a certain amount and concentration of mixture for the cylinder according to the request of the initiator, and discharge the exhaust gas from the cylinder to the atmosphere. The function of the fuel supply system of diesel engine is to supply diesel oil and air to the cylinder separately, to form a mixture in the extinguishing chamber and extinguish it, and finally to exhaust the exhaust gas after extinguishing. Out. Biogas Generator
4、 光滑系 光滑系的功用是向作相对运动的零件外表保送定量的清洁光滑油，以完成液体摩擦，减小摩擦阻力，减轻机件的磨损，并对零件外表停止清洗和冷却，光滑系通常由光滑油道、机油泵、机油滤清器和一些阀门等组成。
4. The function of smooth system is to deliver quantitative clean and smooth oil to the surface of parts in relative motion to complete liquid friction, reduce friction resistance, reduce wear and tear of parts, and stop cleaning and cooling the surface of parts. The smooth system is usually composed of smooth oil passage, oil pump, oil filter and some valves.
5、 冷却系 冷却系的功用是将受热零件吸收的局部热量及时分发进来，保证发起机在适合的温度状态下工作。水冷发起机的冷却系通常由冷却水套、水泵、风扇、水箱、节温器等组成。
5. The function of cooling system is to distribute the local heat absorbed by the heated parts in time to ensure that the starter works at the most suitable temperature. The cooling system of water-cooled starter is usually composed of cooling water jacket, water pump, fan, water tank, thermostat, etc.
6、点火系 可以按时在火花塞电极间产生电火花的全部设备成为点火系。 In a gasoline engine, the combustible mixture in the cylinder is ignited by electric spark. For this reason, a spark plug is installed on the cylinder head of the gasoline engine, and the head of the spark plug deepens the extinguishing chamber. The ignition system is usually composed of batteries, generators, distributors, pre-point coils and spark plugs.
7、 启动系 发起机由静止状态过渡到工作状态，必需先用外力转动发起机的曲轴，使活塞作往复运动，气缸内的可燃混合气熄灭收缩做功，推进活塞向下运动使曲轴旋转，发起机才干自行运转，工作循环才干自动停止。因而，曲轴在外力作用下开端转动到发起机开端自动地怠速运转的全过程，称为发起机的启动。完成启动过程所需的安装，称为发起机的启动系。 汽油机由以上两大机构和五大系统组成，即由曲柄连杆机构、配气机构、熄灭供应系、光滑系、冷却系、点火系和启动系组成；
7. Start-up system initiator transits from static state to working state. It is necessary to rotate the crankshaft of the initiator with external force to make the piston move back and forth, extinguish and contract the combustible mixture in the cylinder to do work, push the piston down to make the crankshaft rotate, the initiator can run itself, and the working cycle can stop automatically. Therefore, the whole process of the crankshaft turning to the start of the engine automatically idling under the external force is called the start of the engine. The installation required to complete the startup process is called the startup system of the initiator. The gasoline engine consists of the above two mechanisms and five systems, namely, crank connecting rod mechanism, valve distribution mechanism, quenching supply system, smooth system, cooling system, ignition system and starter system.
Diesel engine is composed of the above two major mechanisms and four major systems, namely, crank-connecting rod mechanism, valve distribution system, fuel supply system, smooth system, cooling system and starter system. Diesel engine is compression-ignited and does not require ignition system.
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