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对于发电机组除锈的物理方法

来源:http://www.huannengpower.com   发布于:2019-03-13

锈是金属外表与空气中氧、水分以及酸类物质接触而生成的氧化物,如Fe0、Fe3O4、FeO3等,通常称为铁锈。柴油发电机组去锈的主要办法有机械法、化学酸洗法和电化学酸蚀法。下面由康邦小编为大家详细引见下。

Rust is an oxide formed by the contact of metal surface with oxygen, water and acids in the air, such as Fe0, Fe3O4, FeO3, etc. It is usually called rust. The main methods of rust removal for diesel generating units are mechanical method, chemical pickling method and electrochemical etching method. Below by Kang Bang Xiaobian for your detailed introduction below.

(1)机械法

(1) Mechanical method

应用机械零部件间的摩擦、切削等作用肃清零件外表锈层。常用的办法有刷、磨、抛光和喷砂等。单件小批维修靠人工用钢丝刷、刮刀、砂布等刷、刮或打磨锈蚀层。成批的零部件或有条件的单位,可用电动机或风动机等作动力,带动各种除锈工具停止除锈,如电动磨光、抛光、滚光等。喷砂除锈是应用紧缩空气,把一定粒度的砂子经过喷枪喷在零件的锈蚀外表上。它不只除锈快,还可为油漆、喷涂、电镀等工艺做好准备。经喷砂后的外表洁净,并有一定的粗糙度,能进步掩盖层与零件的分离力。机械法除锈只能用在不重要的机械零部件外表。

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Apply friction and cutting between mechanical parts to remove rust layer on the surface of parts. Common methods include brushing, grinding, polishing and sandblasting. Small batch repairs depend on manual brushing, scraper, sand cloth and other brushing, scraping or polishing rust layer. Batch parts or conditional units can be driven by motors or wind turbines to stop rust removal by various rust removal tools, such as electric polishing, polishing, rolling, etc. Sandblasting rust removal is the application of compressed air, a certain size of sand through the gun sprayed on the rust surface of parts. It not only removes rust quickly, but also prepares for painting, spraying, electroplating and other processes. After sandblasting, the surface is clean and has a certain roughness, which can improve the separation force between the cover layer and the parts. Mechanical rust removal can only be used in the appearance of unimportant mechanical parts.

(2)化学法

(2) Chemical method

这是一种应用化学反响把金属外表的锈蚀产物溶解掉的酸洗法。其原理是酸对金属的溶解以及化学反响中生成的氢对锈层的机械作用而使锈层零落。常用的酸包括盐酸、硫酸、磷酸等。由于金属的材质不同,运用的溶解锈蚀产物的化学药品也有所不同。选择除锈的化学药品和其运用操作条件主要依据金属的品种、化学组成、外表情况和零件尺寸精度及外表质量等要素来肯定。

This is an acid pickling process that uses chemical reactions to dissolve rust products on the surface of metals. The principle is that the dissolution of metal by acid and the mechanical action of hydrogen produced in chemical reaction on rust layer make rust layer scattered. Commonly used acids include hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, etc. Because of the different materials of metals, the chemicals used to dissolve rust products are also different. The selection of rust-removing chemicals and their operating conditions are mainly determined by the variety of metals, chemical composition, external expression, dimensional accuracy and external quality of parts.

(3)电化学酸蚀法

(3) electrochemical etching

就是把零部件放置在电解液中通以直流电,经过化学反响到达除锈目的。这种办法比化学法快,能更好地保管基体金属,酸的耗费量少。普通分为两类:一类是把被除锈的零部件作为阳极;另一类是把被除锈的零件作为阴极。阳极除锈是由于通电后金属溶解以及在阳极的氧气对锈层的撕裂作用而使锈层别离。阴极除锈是由于通电后在阴极上产生的氢气使氧化铁复原和氢对锈层的撕裂作用使锈蚀物从零件外表零落。上述两类办法,前者主要缺陷是当电流密渡过高时,易腐蚀过度,毁坏零件外表,故适用于外形简单的零件。然后者虽无过蚀问题,但氢易进入金属中,产生氢脆,降低零件塑性。因而,需依据锈蚀零件的详细状况肯定适宜的除锈办法。

It is to place the parts in the electrolyte through direct current, through chemical reaction to achieve the purpose of rust removal. This method is faster than chemical method, can better preserve the matrix metal, acid consumption is less. Generally, there are two kinds: one is to use the rusted parts as the anode; the other is to use the rusted parts as the cathode. Anodic rust removal is due to the dissolution of metal after electrification and the tearing of rust layer by oxygen in the anode. The cathode rust removal is due to the hydrogen generated on the cathode after electrification, which restores iron oxide and tears the rust layer by hydrogen, so that the rust is scattered from the surface of the parts. The main defect of the former is that when the current density is too high, it is easy to corrode excessively and destroy the appearance of parts, so it is suitable for parts with simple shape. Then, although there is no corrosion problem, hydrogen easily enters the metal, resulting in hydrogen embrittlement and reducing the plasticity of the parts. Therefore, it is necessary to confirm the appropriate rust removal method according to the detailed condition of the rusted parts.


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