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交流发电机的工作原理离不开什么?

来源:http://www.huannengpower.com   发布于:2019-01-01

发电机的形式很多,但其工作原理都基于电磁感应定律和电磁力定律。因此,其构造的一般原则是:用适当的导磁和导电材料构成互相进行电磁感应的磁路和电路,以产生电磁功率,达到能量转换的目的。

There are many kinds of generators, but their working principles are based on the law of electromagnetic induction and the law of electromagnetic force. Therefore, the general principle of its construction is to use appropriate magnetic conductivity and conductive materials to form mutual electromagnetic induction circuit and circuit to generate electromagnetic power and achieve the purpose of energy conversion.

一般,是三相交流发电机,就是安放相位互差120度的定子绕组。转子的绕组的电流来自,励磁机。励磁机,是转子有剩磁的单相发电机,一种是经过碳刷换向,来实现输出直流,供给发电机的转子。另一种是永磁机加励磁机,永磁机的输出,整流到励磁机的定子,励磁机的转子电流就给发电机的转子。

Generally, it is a three-phase alternator, that is, a stator winding with phase difference of 120 degrees. The current of the rotor winding comes from the exciter. Exciter is a single-phase generator with residual magnetism in the rotor. One is to supply the generator with DC output through carbon brush commutation. The other is the permanent magnet machine plus exciter, the output of the permanent magnet machine, rectifier to the stator of the exciter, and the rotor current of the exciter is given to the rotor of the generator.

有的发电机没有中性点接线柱,但是也把中性点电压充分的利用了(如夏利、桑塔纳发电机),这些发电机在中性点处接上两只整流二极管,和三相绕组的六只整流二极管一道输出,可提高发电机功率。

TIM截图20190101092411.png

Some generators do not have neutral point terminals, but also make full use of neutral point voltages (such as Xiali and Santana generators). These generators are connected with two rectifier diodes at the neutral point and output with six rectifier diodes of three-phase winding, which can improve the power of generators.

为什么定子绕组要均匀错开120度布置?

Why should stator windings be evenly staggered 120 degrees?

(1)定子3相绕组感生电动势的大小为:

(1) The induced electromotive force of stator 3-phase winding is as follows:

eu=Emsinωt=1.414Eφsinωt

EU = Emsin_t = 1.414E_sin_t

ev=Emsin(ωt-2/3π)=1.414Eφsin(ωt-2/3π)

EV = Emsin (_t-2/3pi) = 1.414E_sin (_t-2/3pi)

ew=Emsin(ωt+2/3π)=1.414Eφsin(ωt+2/3π)

EW = Emsin (_t + 2/3 pi) = 1.414 E_sin (_t + 2/3 pi)

其中:Em-每相电动势的大值ω-电角速度f-交流电动势的频率(为转速的函数)p-磁极对数n-发电机转速(r/min)Eφ-每相电动势的有效值

Among them: Em-maximum of each phase electromotive force_-angular velocity f-frequency of alternating current electromotive force (as a function of speed) P-pole logarithm N-generator speed (r/min) Ephi-effective value of each phase electromotive force

(2)定子每相电动势的有效值

(2) Effective value of each phase electromotive force of stator

K-绕组系数(和发电机定子绕组的绕线方法有关)N-每项匝数(匝)φ-每极磁通(Wb)Ce-电机结构常数互动:如此每一时刻三相绕组与整流桥连接的A、B、C三点电位总有一高和低,另一个介入高低之间。

K-winding coefficient (related to winding method of generator stator winding) N-turn number per turn (turn) _-flux per pole (Wb) Ce-motor structure constant interaction: so at each moment three-phase winding and rectifier bridge connection A, B, C three-point potential always has the highest and lowest, another intervention between the high and low.

掌握发电机的检测方法;

Grasp the detection method of generator;

1.整流器的检测步骤:

1. Detection steps of rectifier:

注意:二极管只允许电流单向流动,交流发电机整流器由8个二极管(4对)组成,必须使用能检测二极管的欧姆表测试每个二极管两个方向的导通性,总共检查16次。

Note: Diodes allow only one-way current flow. Alternator rectifier consists of 8 diodes (4 pairs). It is necessary to test the conductivity of each diode in two directions with an ohmmeter capable of detecting the diodes. A total of 16 checks are made.

(1)检查B端子和P端子(每对二极管)之间,E端子(搭铁)和P端子(每对二极管)之间两个方向的导通性,所有二极管应只能单向导通。

(1) Check the conductivity of the two directions between the B terminal and the P terminal (each pair of diodes), the E terminal (lap iron) and the P terminal (each pair of diodes). All the diodes should be unidirectional only.

(2)如果有一个二极管导通状态不符,更换整流器总成(二极管不能单独更换)。

(2) If a diode is not in the conduction state, replace the rectifier assembly (the diode can not be replaced separately).

2.交流发电机电刷的检测步骤:

2. Detection steps of alternator brush:

(1)拆下端盖,然后拧下电刷座的2个螺钉以便取出电刷座。

(1) Remove the end cap, and then screw down the two screws of the brush holder to remove the brush holder.

(2)用游标卡尺测量电刷的长度。交流发电机电刷标准长度:10.5mm;修复极限:1.5mm。

(2) Measure the length of the brush with vernier caliper. Standard length of alternator brush: 10.5mm; repair limit: 1.5mm.

如果电刷长度小于小值,更换电刷总成。

If the length of the brush is less than the minimum, replace the brush assembly.

3.交流发电机转子集流环的检测步骤:

3. Detection steps of rotor collector ring of alternator:

(1)检查集流环之间是否导通(应导通)。

(1) Check whether the collector ring is conductive (should be conductive).

(2)检查集流环和转子或集流环与转子轴之间是否导通(不应导通)。

(2) Check whether the collector ring and the rotor or between the collector ring and the rotor shaft are conductive (should not be conductive).

(3)如果上述检查有一项不符,则更换交流发电机。

(3) If one of the above checks is not in conformity, the alternator shall be replaced.

4.交流发电机定子的检测步骤:

4. Detection steps of alternator stator:

(1)检查每对引线之间是否导通(应导通)。

(1) Check whether each pair of leads is on (should be on).

(2)检查每根引线与线圈芯子之间是否导通(不应导通)。

(2) Check whether each lead is connected to the coil core (should not).

(3)如果上述检查有一项不符,则更换交流发电机。

(3) If one of the above checks is not in conformity, the alternator shall be replaced.


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